A recent meta-analysis of 8 studies conducted in either the United States or Europe found that in men and women, ages 50-79 who did not smoke, those with “inadequate vitamin D levels” were at greater risk of dying early from cardiovascular and/or all-causes. The investigators who published the results in the June 2014 issue of the British Medical Journal looked at 25-hydroxy vitamin D concentrations in 26,018 subjects enrolled in these trials and eliminated confounders such as season of the year, country differences, age, and gender prior to this coming to this conclusion.
Reference: Schottker B, Jorde R, Peasey A, et al. Vitamin D and mortality: meta-analysis of individual participant data from a large consortium of cohort studies from Europe and the United States. Br Med J 2014; 348:g3656