Research published in Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases examined data from 375 patients undergoing coronary angiography between November 2012 and September 2013. For this study, a diagnosis of coronary artery disease (CAD) was defined as the presence of ≥50% stenosis in at least one major coronary artery. All subjects also had ankle-brachial index (ABI), pulse wave velocity (PWV), and serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D [25(OH)D] levels measured. Although Liew and colleagues could find no relationship between 25(OH)D levels and indicators of peripheral artery disease via ABI or arterial stiffness via PWV, there was a statistically significant correlation (p<0.01) between patients with angiographically documented CAD and low levels of 25(OH)D as compared to patients who did not meet the defined criteria for CAD. Additionally, the investigators found that 25(OH)D was the most significant CAD predictor (p <0.001) and better than age, hyperlipidemia, gender (male) or hypertension. The authors concluded that 25(OH)D levels correlated with both the presence and the extent or severity of CAD.
REFERENCE: Liew JY, Sasha SR, Ngu PJ et al. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. Circulating vitamin D levels are associated with the presence and severity of coronary artery disease but not peripheral arterial disease in patients undergoing coronary angiography. 2015 Mar;25(3):274-9. doi: 10.1016/j.numecd.2014.12.005.